Mitochondria are essential structures present in the majority of eukaryotic life forms, including humans. Mitochondria are responsible for generating more than 90% of the body's energy, primarily in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) . When ATP breaks down, it releases essential energy crucial for maintaining life and ensuring proper functioning of organs .
5-hydroxytryptophan, or 5-HTP for short, is the intermediate metabolite of the essential amino acid tryptophan in the process of serotonin biosynthesis . That is to say, it is an immediate precursor to serotonin [1,2].
“Powerhouse of the cell” and “battery of a car” are some common analogies you may have heard used to describe the mitochondria . These analogies oversimplify the functions and role of mitochondria in cell physiology. In contrast to powerhouses with a single energy transformation purpose, mitochondria are multifaceted and multifunctional .
Melatonin is widely regarded as an important hormone that helps regulate and synchronize sleep rhythm, including sleep-wake timing  and seasonal rhythmicity aspects across vertebrates. It also has lesser-known roles as an antioxidant . We have touched briefly on melatonin in a previous article about sleep hormones and their effect on the GABA system here.
Sleep allows our bodies to rest and recover, and our brains to process the information we've taken in during the day. But what happens inside our bodies when we sleep? It all starts with the hormones of sleep!
Mitochondria are absolutely vital to maintaining and optimizing health. When they work well, we feel well, and when they don’t, we don’t. Symptoms of mitochondrial dysfunction can vary from fatigue and brain fog to the obliteration of the electron transport chain from cyanide poisoning and death. Ouch!
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