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Learning & Education

5 Ways to Enhance Synaptogenesis

Motor Learning: 

Acquiring new knowledge is beneficial for the brain, but not all types of learning can lead to the formation of new synapses. To foster the formation of new synapses, it is important to challenge the brain to coordinate and perform complex movements in conjunction with a specific task [38]. This could be acrobatic training, for example. Engaging in motor learning, such as learning a new technique in table tennis or juggling, can also lead to the formation of new synapses that help to improve that skill [39].

A study found that adult rats trained in complex acrobatic movements developed new synapses, while rats assigned to physical exercise or no activity did not [40]. The study also revealed no significant difference in the density of synapses between the group of rats that exercised and the group that did not, indicating that exercise alone may not be sufficient to promote the formation of new synapses [40].

  • 13 min read

Besides implementing healthy habits like plenty of sleep, exercise, a good diet, and a regular meditation practice, there are some exciting molecules can help us stay mentally strong by optimizing our brain chemistry.

And surprise! Methylene blue (MB) is one of them. Although we are not suggesting you change or stop any of your medications unless you speak to your healthcare provider, MB may be the answer to many mood disbalances, even showing promising early results for treating psychiatric and neurological disorders.

  • 7 min read
There are various different types of biological clocks in the body, including circadian, ultradian, and infradian. These will be discussed in depth below, but suffice to say that they serve to control a vast array of physiological processes in the body and ensure that everything runs smoothly [2]. Biological clocks drive or alter our sleep patterns, alertness, mood, physical strength, blood pressure, as well as most other aspects of our physiology and behavior [3]. 
  • 8 min read

Do you remember the last time you did something for the first time? Maybe it was the first time you took a solo travel trip, tried to start learning a new language or yes, even THAT first time (wink wink). 

It was probably awkward and at least mildly uncomfortable. But before you knew it, something clicked and you grasped the basics (yes, even THOSE basics!). 

Are you ready to get out of your comfort zone?

Let's dive into what, the where, and the how of neurogenesis + 4 easy ways to boost it too. 

  • 10 min read

Did you know that because of cannabis, getting high on your own supply has never been easier?! It's all because of our body's Endocannabinoid System or ECS, a major regulatory system, which was discovered because people love their cannabis...and have for almost 5000 years.  

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most known active compounds in the cannabis plant.  Over the last several decades, these cannabinoids were discovered to modulate the ECS.  

To dig deeper into the ECS's inner workings, we first need to define some basic biology. Briefly, we will describe what elements comprise the nervous system, its internal communication process, and how the neurons talk to each other. 

After that, we'll discuss 5 easy ways to enhance your ECS. Ready? As always at Tro Nation, #buccalup! 

  • 9 min read

Just 1% faster. Just 1% stronger. These are the kinds of gains elite athletes strive for to be just .01 second faster than their competition. But even if you are just a weekend warrior trying to not get injured in this week's softball game, the better tuned your internal metabolic system is at making energy, the faster, stronger, and less prone to injury you will be too. 

Energy metabolism depends on a key cellular organelle, the mitochondria. They work as the cell power plant, relentlessly providing energy in (almost) every cell of our body via OXPHOS and the ETC. You have quadrillions of mitochondria in your body. Yes, quadrillions! 

  • 9 min read

Holy synergy! Although MB and red light aren administered in very different ways, they both seem to share a mechanism of action: enhancing the electron transport chain in the mitochondria [1]. MB has a biochemical effect, while NIR light has a biophysical effect. While MB donates electrons, NIR light donates photons. MB is administered orally and reaches the brain through the bloodstream, whereas infrared light is applied transcranially. But in the end, they both enhance cellular metabolism and oxygen consumption to produce energy and, therefore, have neuroprotective effects against cognitive decline.

Both are also cost-effective and, if carefully administered (read this post on the safety of methylene blue), have virtually no side effects.

  • 9 min read

Sleep is a hugely important restorative process for humans as well as all organisms across the animal kingdom. It is absolutely essential for the body, mind, memory, and learning [1]. The brain, in particular, produces metabolic end-products such as reactive oxygen species that can damage and impair the function of brain cells. It is during sleep that these damaging end-products are cleared [2]. In addition, anabolic hormones are preferentially released during sleep (such as growth hormone) that aid in the physical restoration process.  

  • 8 min read
More than a decade ago, a pathbreaking discovery showed  for the first time that mature mouse somatic cells could be reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells. The discovery was made by using forced expression of four transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc. These results came from the research group of Shinya Yamanaka, and hence these factors responsible for reprogramming induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are called the Yamanaka factors [1]. 
  • 11 min read

Mitochondria are absolutely vital to maintaining and optimizing health. When they work well, we feel well, and when they don’t, we don’t. Symptoms of mitochondrial dysfunction can vary from fatigue and brain fog to the obliteration of the ETC from cyanide poisoning and death. Ouch! 

In almost all eukaryotic cells, mitochondria run the cell’s metabolic machinery, transforming energy from food directly to energy. They produce impressive amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the bio-currency of cells, making use of oxygen and multiple enzymes attached to their inner membrane.

  • 10 min read

Aging is one of those simple facts of life – it affects us all. It is marked by the inevitable decline in physiological function and an increased risk of disease...and lots of wrinkles, unless you live in South Korea, the plastic surgery capital of the world [1,2].

There are, however, some very distinct differences between chronologic aging (your age in terms of years) and biologic aging. In this article, we will explore the nuances and details of these types of aging. We will also discuss some of the methods in which we can measure the differences between the two. 

  • 9 min read

Danger! Watch yourself!  The cell danger response (CDR) may just be the most important cellular response that you have never heard about…until now. Well, unless it was in a Mystical song from the the year 2000.  

The CDR is defined as an evolutionary conserved metabolic response, activated when a cell comes across serious threats that could potentially injure or kill the cell [1]. 

  • 11 min read

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