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The exposome: the cumulative measure of environmental exposures and corresponding biological responses that can be derived from biological samples (blood, urine, tissue).
The debate of nature versus nurture was put to rest by introducing the exposome concept . The exposome definition considers environmental factors (nurture) and the associated biological responses (nature).
Dendrites are the most essential part of synaptic formation; hence, forming new dendrites is critical for healthy brain functioning. Here are some ways to enhance it:
Chronic stress is one of the main causative agents of depression . Scientists have shown that there is an adverse impact on the shape, activity, and function of dendrites, as well as on synaptic plasticity and the secretion of stress hormones (cortisol) due to chronic stress [7,12]. It is crucial to prevent chronic stress to preserve optimal neural and synaptic functioning. Studies have shown many positive effects of meditation on reducing chronic stress [28,29].
Studies have shown that sleep after motor learning activates the dendritogenesis and spinogenesis of postsynaptic dendrites [21,22]. Sleep also prevents the elimination of newly formed spines after learning multiple tasks [21,22]. Non-rapid eye movement sleep reactivates neurons are activated during motor tasks. Altering this hinders branch-specific dendritic spine formation [21,22].
Studies have found that a diet rich in antioxidants reduces dendritic spine loss . Antioxidants eliminate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protect the brain. Omega fatty acids have been shown to improve neuronal function mediated by the formation of new neurons and synapses [31,32]. Omega fatty acids also increase the secretion of neurotrophins like BDNF, NGF, NT-3, and NT-4, activating dendritogenesis [12,33,34].
Methylene Blue (MB) has been shown to activate the expression of PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) [35,36]. PINK1 is actively involved in regulating dendritic morphology . Thus, the application of MB may positively impact dendritogenesis . MB also activates BDNF [39,40], which has been shown to play an active role in dendritogenesis. MB enhances antioxidants in the body, which reduces ROS and improves cognitive function[35,38]. You can grab some now.
Neurobics (neuron+ aerobics) is a concept introduced by Dr. Lawrence Katz . He developed a variety of brain exercises that can provide more oxygen to neurons and help improve cognitive function . The concept is that brain exercises result in a higher release of neurotrophins like BDNF [41–43]. BDNF activates dendritogenesis and helps in improving cognitive function [42,43]. Practicing long-term neurobics may induce a change in brain morphology due to neuroplasticity. Studies have found that London taxi drivers have increased grey matter and larger hippocampal volume, as driving is a neurobic that impacts these brain regions [42,44]. Similarly, learning music improves verbal and working memory [41,42].
Even though cannabis has accompanied humans for almost 5000 years, it was not until recently that its mechanism in our bodies and related main actors were revealed. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most known active compounds in cannabis. These exocannabinoids interfere with the regular neuron communication system by mimicking natural endocannabinoids, internal compounds produced in our body.
By understanding these compounds, researchers found the basis of their interaction with our brain leading to the endocannabinoid system (ECS) discovery.
New research evidence suggests that meditation can modulate brain activity, specifically via the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) [3–6]. Though this may perhaps not be surprising to the devotees of the practice, in this article we will investigate the relationship between meditation and this important neurotransmitter in the brain and nervous system.
If you’re a fan of all things cannabis, you’ve probably heard about the endocannabinoid system (ECS) - the homeostatic superhero of our bodies that regulates everything from mood to appetite. But did you know that the ECS also has a hand in something called neurogenesis?
Acquiring new knowledge is beneficial for the brain, but not all types of learning can lead to the formation of new synapses. To foster the formation of new synapses, it is important to challenge the brain to coordinate and perform complex movements in conjunction with a specific task . This could be acrobatic training, for example. Engaging in motor learning, such as learning a new technique in table tennis or juggling, can also lead to the formation of new synapses that help to improve that skill .
A study found that adult rats trained in complex acrobatic movements developed new synapses, while rats assigned to physical exercise or no activity did not . The study also revealed no significant difference in the density of synapses between the group of rats that exercised and the group that did not, indicating that exercise alone may not be sufficient to promote the formation of new synapses .
Besides implementing healthy habits like plenty of sleep, exercise, a good diet, and a regular meditation practice, there are some exciting molecules can help us stay mentally strong by optimizing our brain chemistry.
And surprise! Methylene blue (MB) is one of them. Although we are not suggesting you change or stop any of your medications unless you speak to your healthcare provider, MB may be the answer to many mood disbalances, even showing promising early results for treating psychiatric and neurological disorders.
Do you remember the last time you did something for the first time? Maybe it was the first time you took a solo travel trip, tried to start learning a new language or yes, even THAT first time (wink wink).
It was probably awkward and at least mildly uncomfortable. But before you knew it, something clicked and you grasped the basics (yes, even THOSE basics!).
Are you ready to get out of your comfort zone?
Let's dive into what, the where, and the how of neurogenesis + 4 easy ways to boost it too.
Did you know that because of cannabis, getting high on your own supply has never been easier?! It's all because of our body's Endocannabinoid System or ECS, a major regulatory system, which was discovered because people love their cannabis...and have for almost 5000 years.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) are the most known active compounds in the cannabis plant. Over the last several decades, these cannabinoids were discovered to modulate the ECS.
To dig deeper into the ECS's inner workings, we first need to define some basic biology. Briefly, we will describe what elements comprise the nervous system, its internal communication process, and how the neurons talk to each other.
After that, we'll discuss 5 easy ways to enhance your ECS. Ready? As always at Tro Nation, #buccalup!
Just 1% faster. Just 1% stronger. These are the kinds of gains elite athletes strive for to be just .01 second faster than their competition. But even if you are just a weekend warrior trying to not get injured in this week's softball game, the better tuned your internal metabolic system is at making energy, the faster, stronger, and less prone to injury you will be too.
Energy metabolism depends on a key cellular organelle, the mitochondria. They work as the cell power plant, relentlessly providing energy in (almost) every cell of our body via OXPHOS and the ETC. You have quadrillions of mitochondria in your body. Yes, quadrillions!