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Learning & Education

Each mitochondria within the cell serves as a hub of aerobic respiration, the conversion of fats and carbohydrates into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is the energy currency of life. This ATP is then distributed throughout the cell to be used in a diverse range of metabolic processes.  

In this article, we will look at eight essential ways to improve or enhance mitochondrial function and, as a consequence, the production of cellular energy.  

  • 6 min read

All of us are faced with challenging life experiences and elements of mental adversity, from both internal and external sources. The research literature is filled with examples of children and adults who, in the face of considerable psychological stress, displayed minimal changes in emotional wellbeing or behavioral disturbances [1].  There are, of course, many more that have not been so lucky. 

Our ability to deal with these stresses is called ‘stress resilience’ and is rooted in our view of the world, the availability and quality of social resources, and specific coping strategies that we might employ. According to the American Psychological Association, resources and skills associated with more beneficial outcomes (i.e., greater stress resilience) can be actively cultivated and practiced.   

In today’s article, we will investigate eight essential methods to improve stress resilience according to the latest research. And at least one might surprise you.   

  • 9 min read

Did you know that in the animal kingdom, humans are the only ones who will purposely deprive themselves of sleep?

You’ve probably heard quips such as: 

“Sleep is for quitters” 

“I’ll sleep when I’m dead”  

“Sleep is for lazy people” 

But the secret is out…people who say these things are very very wrong (and will likely die sooner than those who get more sleep!)  

  • 7 min read

The whole world is getting more anxious by the day. According to recent statistics, up 33.7% of people will be affected by an anxiety disorder during their lifetime [2] and there are currently 264 million people impacted globally [3].  

In 2019, the percentage of patients taking anti-anxiety medication was around 10% in females over 45, and around 5% in males, according to Statista.com. And since the pandemic, these rates have skyrocketed. Currently there are 50 million Americans taking mental health medications. This was an increase in 20% in just one year, from 2020 to 2021 according to the CDC

In today’s article, we will take a look at the different neurotransmitters are involved in the anxiety response.

  • 7 min read

Yes indeed. They are PONs + pyschoplastogens! Let us explain....

The use of classical psychedelic substances for therapeutic purposes has surged in recent years. Although in its infancy, research has also alluded to the potential benefits of ‘microdosing’ psychedelics for health and wellness, namely by lowering depression, anxiety, and stress as well as enhancing cognitive performance [2].  

Today’s article poses the following questions: is it possible for psychedelics to be nootropics? If so, how? And could the neural plasticity-altering effects of these well-known drugs be harnessed to enhance brain function (i.e are they pyschoplastogens)? 

But first...what are nootropics again? 

  • 8 min read
Programs! Get your programs! In this article, we’re going to take a look at the default mode network (DMN), also known as the default state network + ways to modulate its activity! 
  • 8 min read

Whether in the boardroom, bedroom, on the athletic pitch, hiking Everest, fluffing (google it), or trying to finish an ultramarathon, can we all agree that performance kind of of a big deal?!  

Let's talk Performance Optimization Nootropics (PONs)! 

  • 6 min read
First-pass metabolism, otherwise known as the ‘first-pass effect’. This phenomenon relates mainly to drugs and other supplements that are consumed orally. The concentration of a drug or supplement that we ingest is often not the amount that is eventually seen in the blood (systemic circulation).
  • 9 min read
How well do you methylate? Where do these methyl groups come from? And why should you care? Well, Tro Nation, today’s article explores methylation in detail because, like Hansel from Zoolander, methylation is just “so hot right now”. 
  • 10 min read
Get out your eggs! In this article, we will explore an important neurotransmitter in the body and brain called acetylcholine (ACh). While also functioning as a classical neuromodulator, ACh is similar to norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, in that it cannot cross the blood-brain barrier. 
  • 9 min read
In today’s article, we are going to cover the “fight or flight” (or “oh sh*t there’s a bear”) catecholamine and neurotransmitter known as norepinephrine (NE). As with gamma-aminobutyric acid (or GABA), serotonin, and dopamine, norepinephrine can’t cross the blood-brain barrier.
  • 9 min read

In today’s article, we are going to explore the well-known, indispensable, and now kind of infamous neurotransmitter dopamine. As with gamma-aminobutyric acid (or GABA) and serotonin, dopamine can’t cross the blood-brain barrier. 

  • 7 min read

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